Contributed by Mr. David
Schramm, Clovis / USA
My Hauser Research Paper
The Definitive Elements of the Hermann Hauser Spanish Guitar
The Hermann Hauser Spanish guitar is one of the most copied guitars of
today. Visit any hand-made guitar dealer and you will find many luthiers
from around the world who build what they call a “Hauser” model. Why is it
so popular? Andres Segovia called his 1937 Hauser Sr. guitar, “the guitar
of our epoch.” Guitar historian Richard Brune rated the guitars of
Hermann Hauser, Sr., as number two out of the top ten collectable gut
strung guitars. What is it exactly that makes a guitar a “Hauser” copy?
In most cases the so-called “Hauser” models emulated by other luthiers
have very little in common with the Hauser original. In my research I have
discovered elements of construction, aesthetic and sound that I feel
define the Hauser instrument. Scholarly examinations of the Hauser guitar’
s defining elements are in order to better understand what exactly is a
Hauser style guitar. Potential buyers of such a model need to be informed,
so as not to be persuaded by the title “Hauser.”
To understand the development of the Hauser instrument a study of the
family history is in order. Josef Hauser (1854-1939) began his career as a
musical instrument maker in 1875. In the year 1898 Duke Maximilian of
Bavaria awarded Josef with the Art and Science prize. This was just one
of many medals and presentations that the German state awarded to Josef.
Besides building musical instruments Josef was also a composer of zither
music and is credited with over 400 compositions to his name.
On October 13, 1884 Josef had a son named Hermann. As a young man Hermann
attended the Staatliche Geigenbauschule (State school of violin making)
in Mittenwald, a tradition followed by his son and grandson. Prior to
opening his own shop Hermann worked in the shop of Max Amberger who produced
zithers, lutes and guitars. Hermann began work in his own shop in Munich
in the year 1905. Hermann built Viennese style guitars like those of Johann
George Stauffer (1778-1853) “Legnani” model. He also built
zithers, lutes and multi-string “Schrammel” guitars like those
of Johann George Scherzer (1843-1870), an apprentice of Stauffer’s.
In 1920 a patent was issued for Hauser’s Viennese style guitar strutting
Hauser had access to two of the greatest guitarists of his time, Miguel
Llobet and Andres Segovia. From 1913-14 Llobet frequently performed in
Germany contributing significantly to the prestige of the guitar in that
country. Hauser himself was a member of the Munich guitar society. After
the First World War and into the early 1920s, Hermann Hauser filled the
position of first terz guitar replacing Heinrich Albert in the Munich
Guitar Quartet. During this time Hauser was able to study the instruments
of Antonio Torres. It is quite possible that in 1922 Hauser was able to
study a FE09 (First Epoch) Torres guitar that belonged to Miguel Llobet
who acquired it in 1916. When Julian Bream visited the Hauser workshop in
1970 he recalled seeing a template of Llobet’s Torres dated 1922. The
aesthetics of this instrument had a serious influence on Hauser
instruments built in the Spanish pattern. Segovia’s first visit to Germany
was in 1924 and during this time he heard a concert by local guitarists
who were playing Hauser guitars. After examining the instruments Segovia
saw the mastery and potential of Hauser if he were to build in the Spanish
pattern as fixed by Torres and Ramirez. Hauser was invited to Segovia’s
hotel room where he examined and measured the maestro’s 1912 Manuel
Ramirez guitar. Miguel Llobet, who was also present, watched skeptically
as Hauser spent 3 hours examining and measuring the instrument. Llobet
lacked the enthusiasm and confidence in Hauser that Segovia had.
As early as 1929 Maestro Segovia was playing Hauser instruments built
in the Spanish style. Concert programs from 1929 in New York, 1931 in
Berlin and 1933 in Mexico City all indicate the guitar Segovia played
as “Hauser.” It wasn’t until 1937 that Hauser built
a guitar that Segovia officially accepted. That guitar became known as
“the guitar of our epoch”. Segovia used this instrument for
many recordings and concerts. Prior to his death in 1987, he donated his
famed 1937 Hauser Sr. guitar to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New
Hermann Hauser II (1911-1988) began work in his father’s Munich
workshop in 1930. In 1944 Allied bombing of Munich caused the collapse
of the top two floors into the basement of the Hauser workshop. This event
forced the Hauser’s to shut down the workshop. In 1946 the shop
was moved to Reisbach where Hermann Hauser II continued building with
his father. Like his father before him, Hauser II also attended the Staatliche
Geigenbauschule in Mittenwald. Hauser II was injured during the war, which
might have affected him in his later years. In 1952 Hermann Hauser had
died and his son, Hermann Jr. took over the shop. He continued to build
in the style of his father but experimented with different bracing patterns
and dimensions. Segovia also played instruments built by Hauser II. It
was around the late 1950s and early 1960s then Segovia reluctantly had
to retire his 1937 instrument. According to Segovia it had “fallen
ill.” At one point the 1937 Hauser Sr. guitar received a gash to
the soundboard in the recording studio and was refinished by Hauser II
with lacquer. Shortly after this Segovia complained about the first string
having “died”. In 1966 Hauser II received the gold medal for
guitar making at the International Exhibition in Welser, Austria.
Hermann Hauser III (b.1958) currently carries on the family tradition. He
joined the family business in 1974. At the age of sixteen Hauser III was
instructed by his father, “Hermann, you must go to another workshop to see
how to make an instrument.” For about two and one half years Hauser III
apprenticed at the workshop of one of his father’s friends. After this
time he continued the family tradition by attending the Staatliche
Geigenbauschule in Mittenwald. Hauser II and Hauser III began building
independently in 1977 and in 1978 Hauser III received his first gold medal
in guitar making as a “Bundessieger” or “federal winner.” His older
brother Eric, who sometimes works with him, also attended the
Geigenbauschule in Mittenwald and won a gold medal in guitar making.
The later two generations of Hauser’s have maintained the basic aesthetic
design of the Spanish model established by Hauser Sr. After studying many
Hauser guitars through photographs, books, magazines, visits to dealers,
museums and collectors, I have observed several aesthetic elements that
are consistent in all three generations of Hauser’s. Most of my aesthetic
observations can be found in common with the instruments of Torres and
Ramirez that had a strong influence on Hauser I.
One of the most obvious aesthetic elements of the Hauser Spanish guitar is
the head design. Hauser Sr. used two basic head designs in his Spanish
model, neither of which I have found on Hauser’s Viennese style
instruments. These two head designs include the typical three-lobed
AntonioTorres style head and the popular Madrid style head used by Manuel
Ramirez, Santos Hernandez and Domingo Esteso. The three-lobed Torres head
eventually became the design found in the majority of Hauser instruments.
As of this writing I have yet to see a Hauser II or Hauser III with the
Madrid style head. As with many aesthetic features of the Hauser guitar
they can be traced back to Miguel Llobet’s Antonio Torres FE09 that Hauser
Sr. had access to. The string ramps and lower head slots were usually kept
square like those of Torres, but on page 33 of the U.K. guitar magazine“Guitar International” July 1985 issue is shown a photo of Julian Bream’s
1936 Hauser with rounded string ramps and slots. This is the only time I
have seen a Hauser guitar with this treatment of the head.
Another feature of the Hauser head aesthetic is the head plate itself. In
my research I have not found a Hauser with an added decorative veneer
sandwiched between the head plate and the head. This is another feature
that I believe is borrowed from the Torres guitar and can be found on many
of the Spanish guitars from the early 20th century.
Several purfling schemes have been used for the head of the Hauser
guitars, but Hauser Sr. also built the head plate with no decorative
purfling strips. The head-purfling scheme used by Hauser divides the head
in half down its center. It usually consists of colored and natural
veneers in the following order: white-green-white, rosewood,
white-green-white. This seems to be very consistent in the guitar of
Hauser II and III. However Hauser Sr. when inspired to do so would add
other veneer lines of various thicknesses along with some half-herringbone
designs. On the 1947 guitar Hauser Sr. built for himself one can also see
a mother of pearl central line that replaces the usual rosewood or dark
Landstorfer made the tuning machines found on guitars by Hermann Hauser
Jr. and Sr.. When he died in 1976 his engraver, Klaus Reischl bought the
business from Landstorfer’s widow. Presently Hermann Hauser III almost
exclusively uses the Reischl tuners. They can be found on the majority of
his instruments. The Landstorfer tuning machines, because of their
association with Hauser, inspired tuning machine factories to produce
economical copies. One of the most popular is the Schaller brand “Hauser”
style tuning machine. Today custom tuning machine makers such as David
Rodgers of England and Nicolo Alessi of Italy offer custom engraved
Hauser-style tuning machines.
The Hauser bridge is consistent in size and shape with the design of the
Spanish masters Torres and Ramirez. In the Hauser tradition of Spanish
guitar making it was the aesthetic variations of Torres that influenced
their instruments. The tie block is usually treated in two different ways
on a Hauser instrument, both influences of Torres. One treatment of the
tie block, and most common on Hauser instruments, is to use two bone or
ivory strips, approximately two millimetres square, along the leading
edges. The other variant used by the Hausers is a solid overlay of the tie
block made from several options either mother of pearl, bone or ivory.
Occasionally found in the center of each of the wings of the bridge is a
single mother of pearl dot that is about twelve to fifteen millimetres in
diameter. The mother of pearl dots and tie block inlay can also be found
on Llobet’s 1859 FE09 Torres guitar. A Hauser Sr. guitar from 1947, which
he built for himself, features a bridge with a solid ivory tie block cap
and a single mother of pearl dot on each of the wings. A 1934 Hauser Sr.
guitar in the possession of Sheldon Urlik features a similar treatment of
the bridge, except that mother of pearl is used for the dots and the tie
block overlay. Vahdah Olcott Bickford (1885-1980) who founded the
American Guitar Society in 1923 once owned this instrument. The American
Guitar Society, based in Los Angeles, was the first guitar society to be
founded in the United States. Another Hauser Sr. guitar with the same
bridge aesthetic can be found in the collection of Russell Cleveland. The
date on the label of this instrument is 1935.
In guitar making, purfling is the term used to describe the decorative
veneers and lines that frame the instrument. These lines can be found on
the back, sides, top, rosette and head of a guitar. All three generations
of Hauser’s have used a consistent purfling scheme in their instruments
with only slight variations. The most commonly used purfling scheme, which
is also one of the most noticeable, is that of side purfling. This
technique usually consisted of two thin white lines of either holly or
maple with a thicker green dyed central line. This motif may have come
from the elder Hauser’s influence of Torres and Ramirez. I have seen and
photographed a 1915 Manuel Ramirez guitar featuring exactly the same side
purfling treatment. This white-green-white motif was used by Hauser Jr.
and continues to be used to this day by Hauser III. It was never used in
the non-Spanish style Hauser models. In the 1930s Hauser also used single
white line purflings and blond bindings made of maple with no side
purflings in instruments such as the Llobet FE09 Torres. Close inspection
reveals that not all of the green lines are consistent in their color
matching. This could be due to different batches by the veneer vendor or
by the Hausers themselves. Around 1940 this motive was added to the top
purfling. The Hausers had two basic top purfling motives that are
consistent with all three generations. The first, starting with the
binding, follows the following scheme: binding, white-black-white,
rosewood (or dark wood), white-black-white and two narrow black lines.
After World War II we start to see the following scheme: binding,
white-green-white, rosewood (or dark wood), white-green-white and two
narrow black lines. Other purfling schemes have been used but the above
schemes are the most common and are what I consider part of the defining
aesthetic elements of the Hauser guitar.
Another point to consider are the joinery aesthetic of the side, back and
tail purfling. Most modern builders will mitre the side purfling to the
tail purfling at a forty-five degree angle. The Hauser’s side purfling is
continuous around the perimeter. The back perimeter purfling is also
continuous. It is not mitred. The back center purfling extends over the
heel to form the heel cap, but is divided by the back perimeter purfling.
Richard Brune’s article in the “American Lutherie” quarterly journal
published by the Guild of American Lutherie titled “Segovia’s 1937 Hauser
Revisited” examines this technique. Some of the features of this article
include detailed measurements of the purfling and includes some detailed
photos of the instrument.
Just one look at Llobet’s FE09 Torres guitar and one knows exactly where
Hauser Sr. got some of his ideas for his Spanish model rosette. Some of
Hauser Sr.’s rosettes match this rosette in nearly every detail. Segovia’
s 1912 Ramirez has a central tile motif that is frequently used in the
work of Hauser III. One of the unique things about the rosette tiles of
the Hauser guitars is that they used no end grain. Most of these central
tile motifs are very basic patterns such as crosses and diamonds. It is
easier to use side grain when applying basic patterns. The advantage of
doing so is that the medullary rays found in the side grain will shimmer.
End grain tiles would absorb the light dulling the effect. Natural woods
are used except for the greens and reds. For example: for brown, various
rosewoods are used; for black, ebony or a dyed veneer. White lines are
usually maple or holly. A frequent motif in the outer rosette rings is the
I explained the historical and aesthetic elements of the Hauser Spanish
guitar in the previous sections. In this last section the construction
elements of the Hauser Spanish guitar will be observed. As the
construction elements are discussed the reader should keep in mind that
Hauser was well established as a maker of the Viennese style of guitar
The linings of a guitar are used to increase the surface area of the sides
so that the back and top can be glued to the sides. The early Hauser
Spanish guitars used a solid quarter sawn lining onto which the back was
glued. This back lining is usually made from spruce or mahogany. Both
Torres and Ramirez were using kerfed linings which allowed the lining to
be flexible thus easily conforming to the guitar’s shape. Until 1928
Hauser was still using solid linings for tops and back, something often
found in the Viennese style guitar, but in the 1930s he started to
experiment. He started to use individual blocks called “tentellones” to
attach the top to the sides. As the Hauser guitar evolved variations of
the lining were used. One interesting observation is that even though he
used a solid bent lining in some of his instruments, specific areas were
kerfed after they were glued. This would explain the uniformity of the
kerfs found in the linings, especially at curved sections. Hauser Jr.
experimented with linings as well. In some instruments he would use kerfed
spruce lining for the tops, but he would leave one centimetre on each side
of the transverse bars unkerfed. For back lining he would use mahogany
that was kerfed only in the lower bout and solid in the upper bout.
Hauser III on the other hand kerfed his mahogany back linings between the
top and middle back braces and also in the lower bout, but the upper bout
was kept solid. This seems to be something kept consistent in Hauser III’s“Segovia” model.
One of the most mysterious details of the Hauser family Spanish guitar
is that all three generations did something to the fingerboard that has
been kept a secret. In the area of the 12-19 frets, the bottom of the
fingerboard has a one millimetre counter veneer. The Hausers seem to have
experimented with different materials. In some instruments it looks like
mastic or a combination of hide glue and ebony dust was used. Andrea Tacchi
who restored a 1957 Hauser Jr. guitar asked Hauser III about this material.
His response, “This is a secret!”. To find out more about
this construction detail I contacted Hauser III. Here is what he had to
say:“My new guitars have this piece under the fingerboard. This
is only one thing, which a Hauser guitar has more in the construction
like on other guitar. (Many small pieces make in the end a big thing).
If you think only for the small piece under the fingerboard I am sure
you will find the right answer. Many people in the guitar world think
on this piece but not every one found the right answer. Sorry that I do
not tell it exactly. I hope you understand this. This is special and I
know because it is a small piece under the fingerboard. You can be sure
that it has sense. There are four right answers and this has also to do
with the whole construction. I am sure you found by yourself two right
After receiving this answer I became more intrigued. Other luthiers that I
spoke with regarding this material mentioned that Hauser told them the
same thing. Some wondered if Hauser III even knew why he used it. In my
opinion I feel that it was used to counteract or slow down the different
expansion and contraction rates of the hardwood ebony and the softwood
spruce and cedar tops. This would help prevent cracking along the grain of
the soundboard where it meets the fingerboard. This theory resolves one of
the four answers, but the other three baffle me. It could also have
something to do with the influence of the Viennese style instruments where
the fingerboard above the soundboard does not touch.
Neck and Heel
The Hauser’s used several species of mahogany for the neck, head and heel.
The most commonly used is Honduras Mahogany, but Philippine and African
Mahoganies have also been used. It is interesting to notice that the use
of Spanish Cedar, a common neck wood, isn’t found in any Hauser
instrument. A consistent characteristic of the Hauser heel is the use of
a one-piece heel instead of the common practice of stacking the heel in
several layers. There are a few Hauser instruments with a one-piece neck
and head with a separate solid heel. This was done when a large piece of
exceptional wood was available.
One of the most distinctive features of the Hauser guitar is the head.
The Hauser head consists of three lobes, a large center semicircular lobe
with a quarter circle lobe on each side. The head is attached to the neck
with a “V” joint. This is a very special type of “V”
joint. According to Hermann Hauser III the “V” joint that
the Hauser family has been using originated in 1875. It comes from the
old tradition of the 13th century Fussen lute makers. Most modern luthiers
who use the “V” joint today execute it in a style completely
different than the Hauser tradition, yet they call it a Hauser “V”
joint which is misleading. The Hauser or Fussen “V” joint
is made of two pieces. The male end that is part of the neck shaft and
the female end located in the head. The sidewalls of these parts are tapered
so they lock into place. The female end does not go all the way through
the head but stops 2-3mm short. A side view of the Hauser guitar will
show that the head sticks up a few millimeters above the line of the neck
shaft. What is incredible about this method of joining the head is not
so much in its construction but in the fact that the Hauser’s installed
the head as one of the last steps in the construction of their instruments.
There is also something curious about the male tip of the “V” neck joint.
Approximately ten millimeters from the point of the male segment of the“V” there is a very well executed splice of wood that is almost
invisible. This was used to increase the thickness of the neck blank so
there was enough wood for the male “V” joint. This is not a consistent
feature but is used in Hauser instruments from the 1950s to today. The
dimensions of the “V” joint are not consistent in any Hauser guitar.
Various widths and lengths have been used. The head angle is commonly set
at about nine degrees. This can be found in the work of all three
generations of Hauser’s.
Bridge Locating Pins
Another of the unique construction details of the bridge is the use of two
locating pins found between the saddle and the tie block. They vary from
two to three millimeters in diameter. Sometimes they are located under
the first and sixth strings and at other times they are between the two
pairs of outer strings. These locating pins extend into the top of the
instrument locking the bridge in place, which would assist in locating the
bridge after varnishing. The outline of the bridge would be scribed with a
sharp knife and the varnish scraped away to prepare the top for gluing the
Two of the most common woods found in the back and sides of the Hauser
guitar are Brazilian and East Indian Rosewood. At times Hauser Sr. would
use both woods. For example, in 1936 he built a guitar with East Indian
Rosewood sides and a Brazilian back. The use of maple is also found for
backs and sides, but is not very common. Hauser III has frequently used a
four piece back consisting of two outer pieces of Brazilian Rosewood and
two maple pieces in the center along with Brazilian Rosewood sides.
Bubinga has sometimes been used in backs and sides, but is the least
common tone wood used in the Hauser guitar.
Hauser III prefers spruce from the Bavarian Mountains for his soundboards.
Both Hauser II and III have used cedar on occasion. The majority of
soundboards used in Hauser guitars are made of spruce. On occasion the
tops are mismatched. One possibility for this could have been the
destruction of the workshop during World War II and the surviving
inventory of soundboards may have been mixed up. Or, the tops may have
runout, which is diagonal grain in relation to the plane of the
soundboard. Runout causes a refractive shift in the aesthetic of the top
in which one half of the top looks light and the other half looks dark in
color. To avoid this the Hausers may have decided not to book-match some
of their soundboards but join them so that they have matching runout.
One aspect that separates the Hauser guitar from the Spanish school is the
use of thicker soundboards. The Hauser soundboard thickness has an average
range of 2.5-3.0 millimeters compared to the soundboards of Torres and
Manuel Ramirez, which fell into the 2-millimeter or thinner range. This
definitive characteristic is one of the most overlooked aspects of the
Hauser design and all too often is neglected in replicas of this model of
The Hauser’s were one of the first to use nitrocellulose lacquer on a
classical guitar. They first started using nitrocellulose lacquer in the
1950s, 10 years prior to the use of catalyzed finishes by the workshop of
Jose Ramirez in Madrid. Hauser II refinished Segovia’s 1937 Hauser Sr.
guitar in the early 1960s with nitrocellulose lacquer. Soon after this,
Segovia said the first string died and stopped playing the instrument.
Segovia took the instrument to Jose Ramirez III to see if he could bring
it back to life. He recalls Segovia saying, “My Hauser guitar has fallen
ill. It has a strange vibration and furthermore there are two notes on the
first string that do not have the same intensity as the others. I would
like you to repair it for me.”
The current standard used by Hauser III is to French polish the top and
use nitrocellulose lacquer on the back, sides, neck and head. Since the
1960s nitrocellulose lacquer has changed and isn’t quite as hard and
brittle. Hauser III has found that there is no advantage to the use of
shellac compared to lacquer for sound.
Andres Segovia and Julian Bream, two influential classical guitarists
of the 20th century, both performed on Hauser guitars. The best description
of a Hauser guitar’s musical attributes can be found in the book
Julian Bream—A Life on the Road. Here is how Bream described the
Hauser guitar:“ The German instrument has what I can only describe
as the very essence of classicism in guitar sound; the integration of
the different registers of the instrument, whether in the extreme high
positions or in the low, achieves a balance that is remarkable. The bass
is deep but finely focused; it is sustained but has great clarity. The
treble strings have a bell-like quality and a sweetness of tone that is
never cloying. The third string which, on most instruments, can sound
tubby and lacking a true center, on a great Hauser had a profound ring
about it, and when played softly is quite magical. And because of this
concentrated focus and clarity of sound, and its consequent fine separation
of detail in both contrapuntal and chordal music, this type of guitar
is ideally suited for use as a concert instrument.” After reading
Bream’s description I have to wonder what it must have been like
to play Segovia’s 1937 Hauser, “the greatest guitar of our
epoch.” Bream admits that he has owned two good Hauser’s but
not a great one.
The Spanish guitars of the Hauser tradition have influenced luthiers
around the globe. Many luthiers offer “Hauser” replicas or models,
including myself. My research into the Hauser tradition has opened my eyes
as to what makes a Hauser guitar. In this paper I have examined the
history and described details of aesthetic and construction. These details
are important in capturing the spirit of this model of guitar. Segovia’s
role was also a vital one in the worldwide evolution of the instrument.
The meeting of Segovia and Hauser gave a non-Spanish builder a credible
endorsement that Spaniards are not the only ones that can build the
guitar. Since the meeting of these two greats the world of the classical
guitar has never been the same. Guitar building is booming around the
globe. There have never been more guitar makers than there are today and
no guitar has been copied as much as that of the Hauser tradition, the
Spanish guitars “Stradivarius”.
Articles & Books
Brune, Richard. “Segovia’s 1937 Hauser Revisited” American Lutherie 31
Brune, Richard. “An Interview with H.E. Huttig” American Lutherie 32
Brune, Richard. “Guitars with Guts-Top Ten Collectable Gut Strung
Vintage Guitar Magazine April 1996: 142.
Brune, Richard. “Guitars with Guts-Hermann Hauser I.” Vintage Guitar
Magazine Feb. 1998:
Brune, Richard. “Guitars with Guts-Varnishes.” Vintage Guitar Magazine
April 2001: 66-67.
Brune, Richard. “Guitars with Guts-Segovia’s 1937 Hauser.” Vintage Guitar
Oct. 2003: 66-70.
Cleveland, Russel. The Classical Guitar: A Complete History. London:
Clinton, George. “Bream and the Luthier.” Guitar International. July 1985:
Elliot, Jeffrey. “An Overview of the Hauser Tradition” American Lutherie 8
Grondona, Stefano and Luca Waldner. La Chitarra di Liuteria. Sondrio: LDL,
Huttig, Hart. “Remembering Hermann Hauser II.” Guild of American Luthiers
Jahnel, Franz. Manual of Guitar Technology-The History and Technology of
Instruments Westbrook: Strummer, 2000.
Kelly, Armin. “Meet the Maker: Hermann Hauser III” American Lutherie 51
(1997): 20-23, 37
Palmer, Tony. Julian Bream- A Life on the Road New York: Watts, 1983.
Ramirez, Jose III. Things About the Guitar Madrid: Soneto, 1993.
Riggs, David. “Meet the Maker: Klaus and Peppe Reischel” American Lutherie
42 (1995): 42-
Romanillos, Jose. Antonio de Torres: Guitar Maker-His Life and Work.
Second Ed. West Port:
Segovia, Andres. “In Memoriam-Hermann Hauser.” Guitar Review 16 (1954): 1
Summerfield, Maurice J. The Classical Guitar-It’s Evolution, Players and
1800 2nd ed. Newcastle: Ashley, 1991.
Urlik, Sheldon. A Collection of Fine Spanish Guitars. Commerce: SKPC,
Westbrook, James. Guitars Through the Ages U.K., 2002
Brune, Richard. “Re: Hauser Question and Observation.” E-mail to David
Schramm. 14 Sept.
Brune, Richard. “Re: Hauser Question and Observation.” E-mail to David
Schramm. 25 Sept.
Brune, Richard. “Re: Hauser Observations.” E-mail to David Schramm. 04
Brune, Richard. “Re: Lansdorfer Tuning machines history.” E-mail to David
Schramm. 25 Nov. 2003.
Brune, Richard. “Re: Hauser II Gold Medal Award?” E-mail to David Schramm. 15 Dec. 2003.
Hauser, Hermann. “Re: Guitar Question.” E-mail to David Schramm. 7 Oct.
Alessi, Nicolo. “Alessi Tuning Machines”
Alessi tuning machines website
The Documentary of Hauser Restoration Ed. Andrea Tacchi. Vers.1.07.
The History of the Classical Guitar Ed.Jojo McBean.
Nov. 23, 2003
Morris, Allan. “Heinrich Albert and the First Guitar Quartet.” Sept. 25,
Inc. Nov. 23, 2003
Purcell, Ronald C. “Vahdah Olcott Bickford.” Ed. Ronald C. Purcell. CSUN.
24 Nov. 2003
Rodgers, David. “Rodgers Tuning Machines Home Page” Rodgers tuning machine
Stewmac.com 24 Nov. 2003